The Connection of Anxiety, Depression and Stress with Resilience and Sleep Quality During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Maida Koso-Drljević, Esma Čelenka, Nejla Omerović-Ihtijarević


During the 2020/2021 academic year, the working conditions of students during online classes, the levels of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and their correlations with resilience and sleep quality were examined on a sample of students from the University of Sarajevo (UNSA). The results of the research show that most students have satisfying working conditions from home, but also that a large number of them still feel fear and anxiety that something will happen to the internet connection or computer during online classes and exams. About 50% of students have increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, which are significantly in correlation with poorer sleep quality. Higher levels of resilience in students are correlated with lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and better sleep quality. The level of student depression is a variable that is the best predictor in explaining the criterion variable quality of sleep.


COVID-19; depression; anxiety; stress; resilience; sleep quality

Full Text:



Alvaro, Pasquale K., Rachel M. Roberts, Jodie K, Harris (2013), ˝A systematic review assessing bidirectionality between sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression˝, Sleep, 36(7), 1059-1068.

Auerbach, Randy P. et al. (2016), ˝Mental disorders among college students in the World Health Organization world mental health surveys˝, Psychological medicine, 46(14), 2955-2970.

Baglioni, Chiara, Gemma Battagliese, Bernd Feige, Kai Spiegelhalder, Christoph Nissen, Ulrich Voderholzer, Caterina Lombardo, Dieter Riemann (2011), ˝Insomnia as a predictor of depression: A meta-analytic evaluation of longitudinal epidemiological studies˝, Journal of affective disorders, 135(1-3), 10-19.

Behan, Caragh (2020), ˝The benefits of meditation and mindfulness practices during times of crisis such as COVID-19˝, Irish journal of psychological medicine, 37(4), 256-258.

Fawaz, Mirna, Ali Samaha (2020), ˝COVID-19 quarantine: Post-traumatic stress symptomatology among Lebanese citizens˝, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(7), 666-674.

Gabrielli, Silvia, Silvia Rizzi, Giulia Bassi, Sara Carbone, Rosa Maimone, Michele Marchesoni, Stefano Forti (2021), ˝Engagement and Effectiveness of a Healthy-Coping Intervention via Chatbot for University Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mixed Methods Proof-of-Concept Study˝, JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 9(5), e27965.

Galante, Julieta, Géraldine Dufour, Maris Vainre, Adam P. Wagner, Jan Stochl, Alice Benton, Neal Lathia, Emma Howarth, Peter B. Jones (2018), ˝A mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress in university students (the Mindful Student Study): A pragmatic randomized controlled trial˝, The Lancet Public Health, 3(2), e72-e81.

George, Ginu, Mary Rani Thomas (2021), ˝Quarantine effects and strategies of college students – COVID-19˝, Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(4), 565-573

Gomez, Fernando (2016), A guide to the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS 21), Central and Eastern Sydney primary health networks

Huckins, Jeremy F., Alex W. da Silva, Weichen Wang, Elin Hedlund, Courtney Rogers, Subigya K. Nepal, Jialing Wu, Mikio Obuchi, Eilis I. Murphy, Meghan L. Meyer, Dylan D. Wagner, Paul E. Holtzheimer, Andrew T. Campbell (2020), ˝Mental health and behavior of college students during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic: Longitudinal smartphone and ecological momentary assessment study˝, Journal of medical Internet research, 22(6), e20185.

Hyun, Sunah, Hyeouk Chris Hahm, Ga Tin Fifi Wong, Emily Zhang, Cindy H. Liu (2021), ˝Psychological correlates of poor sleep quality among US young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic˝, Sleep medicine, 78, 51-56.

Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus, Karin Lindblom (2008), ˝A bidirectional relationship between anxiety and depression, and insomnia? A prospective study in the general population˝, Journal of psychosomatic research, 64(4), 443-449.

Krystal, Andrew D., Jack D. Edinger (2008), ˝Measuring sleep quality˝, Sleep medicine, 9, S10-S17

Lovibond, Syd Harold, Peter F. Lovibond (1995), Manual for the Depression Anxiety & Stress Scales (2 Ed.), Psychology Foundation, Sydney

McAllister, Margaret, Jessica McKinnon (2009), ˝The importance of teaching and learning resilience in the health disciplines: A critical review of the liter ature˝, Nurse education today, 29(4), 371-379.

McGillivray, Cher J., Aileen M. Pidgeon (2015), ˝Resilience attributes among university students: A comparative study of psychological distress, sleep disturbances and mindfulness˝, European Scientific Journal, 11(5), 33-48.

Nelson, Benjamin W., Adam Pettitt, Jessica E. Flannery, Nicholas B. Allen (2020), ˝Rapid assessment of psychological and epidemiological correlates of COVID-19 concern, financial strain, and health-related behavior change in a large online sample˝, PLoS One, 15(11), e0241990.

Pereira, Stephen, Nick Early, Leon Outar, Mihaela Dimitrova, Lucy Walker, Chris Dzikiti, Christopher Platt (2020), ˝University student mental health survey 2020: A large scale study into the prevalence of student mental illness within UK universities˝, The Insight Network and Dig-In

Saraswathi, Ilango, Jayakumar Saikarthik, K. Senthil Kumar, Kumar Madhan Srinivasan, M. Ardhanaari, Raghunath Gunapriya (2020), ˝Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the mental health status of undergraduate medical students in a COVID-19 treating medical college: A prospective longitudinal study˝, PeerJ, 8, e10164.

Savage, Matthew J., Ruth James, Daniele Magistro, James Donaldson, Laura C.Healy, Mary Nevill, Philip J. Hennis (2020), ˝Mental health and movement behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic in UK university students: Prospective cohort study˝, Mental Health and Physical Activity, 19, 100357.

Son, Changwon, Sudeep Hegde, Alec Smith, Xiaomei Wang, Farzan Sasangohar (2020), ˝Effects of COVID-19 on college students’ mental health in the United States: Interview survey study˝, Journal of medical internet research, 22(9), e21279

Spoormaker, Victor I., Jan van den Bout (2005), ˝Depression and anxiety complaints; relations with sleep disturbances˝, European psychiatry, 20(3), 243-245.

Tafoya, Silvia A., Vania Aldrete-Cortez, Silvia Ortiz, Claudia Fouilloux, Felipe Flores, Ana M. Monterrosas (2019), ˝Resilience, sleep quality and morningness as mediators of vulnerability to depression in medical students with sleep pattern alterations˝ Chronobiology international, 36(3), 381-391.

Varma, Prerna, Moira Junge, Hailey Meaklim, Melinda L. Jackson (2021), ˝Younger people are more vulnerable to stress, anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic: A global cross-sectional survey˝, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 109, 110236.

Wagnild, Gail (2014), True resilience: Building a life of strength, courage, and meaning: An interactive guide, Cape House Books

Wagnild, Gail M., Heather M. Young (1993), ˝Development and psychometric evaluation of The Resilience Scale˝, Journal of nursing measurement, 1(2), 165-178.

Wang, Cuiyan, Riyu Pan, Xiaoyang Wan, Yilin Tan, Linkang Xu, Cyrus S. Ho, Roger C. Ho (2020a), ˝Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China˝, International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(5), 1729.

Wang, Guanghai, Yunting Zhang, Jin Zhao, Jun Zhang, Fan Jiang (2020b), ˝Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak˝, The Lancet, 395(10228), 945-947.

Yi, Hyeryeon, Kyungrim Shin, Chol Shin (2006), ˝Development of the sleep quality scale˝, Journal of sleep research, 15(3), 309-316.

Zhai, Yusen, Xue Du (2020), ˝Addressing collegiate mental health amid COVID-19 pandemic˝, Psychiatry research, 288, 113003.

Zvizdić, Sibela (2015), Socijalna podrška i rezilijencija kod djece i adolescenata, Filozofski fakultet u Sarajevu



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 2490-3604 (print) ● ISSN: 2490-3647 (online)

Društvene i humanističke studije - DHS is under the Creative Commons licence.