Deepfake Phenomenon: An Advanced Form of Fake News and Its Implications on Reliable Journalism

Amina Vatreš


In the era of distinctly new media-marked social reality, the process of dissemination of disinformation is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon. As one of the technological innovations that stands out in this field is the deepfake phenomenon – a hyper-realistic digital falsification of video and audio formats. Since it is based on the most sophisticated technology, supported by achievements in the field of artificial intelligence, deepfake unequivocally represents a kind of turning point in the context of production and distribution of fake audio-visual content. To poly perspective point to the multiple repercussions of this phenomenon, the paper provides a deeper insight into the very definition and the specific factors that contribute to the acceptance of deepfake, with special emphasis on its implications on reliable journalism and its social function. The text articulates the role of deepfake in the process of creating and receiving media content, as well as the problem of the emergence of erosion of public trust within a hyperreal media environment.


deepfake; disinformation; fake news; erosion of trust; reliable journalism

Full Text:



Bacarella, Christian, Timm F. Wagner, Jan Kietzmann, Ian Paul McCarthy (2018), ˝Social Media? It’s Serious! Understanding the Dark Side of Social Media˝, European Management Journal, 36(4), 431-438.

Bennett, Lance W., Steven Livingston (2020), The Disinformation Age: Politics, Technology, and Disruptive Communication in the United States, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Beridze, Irakli, James Butcher (2019), ˝When Seeing is No Longer Believing˝, Nature Machine Intelligence, 1(8), 332-334.

Brautović, Mato, Sandra Buratović Maštrapa, Romana John (2020), ˝Točnost u online medijima: Nedovoljne novinarske rutine u provjeravanju činjenica i ispravcima˝, Medijske studije, 11(21), 66-86.

Brown, Nina (2020), ˝Deepfakes and the Weaponization of Disinformation˝, Virginia Journal of Law & Technology, 23(1), 1-59.

Caldera, Elizabeth (2020), ˝Reject the Evidence of Your Eyes and Ears: Deepfake and the Law of Virtual Replicants˝, Seton Hall Law Review, 50(1), 177-205.

Chandler, Simon (2020), ˝Why Deepfakes Are A Net Positive For Humanity˝, Forbes, izvor: deepfakes-are-a-net-positive-for-humanity/#3f950d2a2f84, pristupljeno 17. 3. 2021.

Chesney, Robert, Danielle Citron (2019), ˝Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for Privacy, Democracy, and National Security˝, California Law Review, 107, 1753-1820.

Chesney, Robert, Danielle Citron (2018), ˝Disinformation on Steroids: The Threat of Deep Fakes˝, Boston University School of Law, izvor: https://sc-, pristupljeno 16. 2. 2021.

Chudinov, Anatoly P., Natalya, N. Koshkarova, Natalia B. Ruzhentseva (2019), ˝Linguistic Interpretation of Russian Political Agenda Through Fake, Deepfake, Post-Truth˝, Journal of Siberian Federal University Humanities & Social Sciences, 12(10), 1840-1853.

Dobber, Tom, Nadia Metoui, Damian Trilling, Natali Helberger, Claes de Vreese (2021), ˝Do Microtargeted Deepfakes Have Real Effects on Political Attitudes?˝, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 26(1), 69-91.

Dunaway, Jaime (2018), ˝Reddit (Finally) Bans Deepfake Communities, but Face-Swapping Porn Isn’t Going Anywhere˝, Slate, izvor: technology/2018/02/reddit-finally-bans-deepfake-communities-but-face-swapping-porn-isnt-going-anywhere.html, pristupljeno 12. 3. 2021.

Foer, Franklin (2018), ˝The Era of Fake Video Begins˝, Atlantic, izvor: the, pristupljeno 27. 4. 2021.

Hall, Holly Kathleen (2018), ˝Deepfake Videos: When Seeing Isn’t Believing˝, Catholic Journal of Law and Technology, 27(1), 51-76.

Hambrick, David, Madeline Marquardt (2018), ˝Cognitive Ability and Vulnerability to Fake News˝, SCI. AM, izvor: https://www.scientificamerican. com/article/cognitive-ability-and-vulnerability-to-fake-news/, pristupljeno 17. 2. 2021.

Hof, Robert D. (2013), ˝Deep Learning˝, MIT TECH. REV. izvor: https://, pristupljeno 4. 4. 2021.

Karnouskos, Stamatis (2020), ˝Artificial Intelligence in Digital Media: The Era od Deepfakes˝, IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society, 1(3), 138-147.

Keyes, Ralph (2004), The Post-Truth Era: Dishonesty and Deception in Contemporary Life, St. Martin’s Publishing Group

Kietzmann, Jan, Linda W. Lee, Ian Paul McCarthy, Jan Kietzmann (2020), ˝Deepfakes: Trick or Treat?˝, Business Horizons, 63(2), 135-146.

Lewis, James Andrew (2019), ˝Trust Your Eyes? Deepfakes Policy Brief˝, Center for Strategic & International Studies, Washington D. C., izvor: https://, pristupljeno 22. 2. 2021.

Temir, Erkam (2020), ˝Deepfake: New Era in The Age of Disinformation & End of Reliable Journalism˝, SELÇUK İLETİŞİM DERGİSİ, 13(2), 1009-1024.

Vaccari, Cristian, Andrew Chadwick (2020), ˝Deepfakes and Disinformation: Exploring the Impact of Synthetic Political Video on Deception, Uncertainty, and Trust in News˝, Social Media and Society, 6(1), 1-13.

Vatreš, Amina (2020), Uloga medija u konstrukciji društva rizika, magistarski rad, Fakultet političkih nauka Univerziteta u Sarajevu, izvor: /b/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/ULOGA-MEDIJA-U-KONSTRUKCIJI-DRUSTVA-RIZIKA.pdf, pristupljeno 18. 4. 2021.

Westerlund, Mika (2019), ˝The Emergence of Deepfake Technology: A Review˝, Technology Innovation Management Review, 9(11), 39-52.

Westling, Jeffrey (2019), ˝Deep fakes: Let’s Not Go Off The Deep End˝, Techdirt, izvor: deep-fakes-lets-not-go-off-deep-end.shtml , pristupljeno 21.1.2021.

Zimmermann, Fabian, Matthias Kohring (2020), „Mistrust, Disinforming News, and Vote Choice: A Panel Survey on the Origins and Consequences of Believing Disinformation in the 2017 Parliamentary Election“, Political Communication, 37(8), 215-237.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 2490-3604 (print) ● ISSN: 2490-3647 (online)

Društvene i humanističke studije - DHS is under the Creative Commons licence.